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The nominal loading value for each Lantern series is determined by its size, surface polymer and synthesis application. The values in umole stated below are obtained from the initial surface derivitization. Subsequent attachment of the linker generally proceeds at close to 100%, although this depends on the chemistry involved in the preparation and is reflected in the product specifications.

The expected yields shown in the last column of the Table below are theoretical examples only, based on a typical product of 500MW, assuming 100% yield.

Surface Polymer Application
Lantern Series Nominal Loading (umol) Expected Quantity* (mg)
Polystyrene Lanterns
Small molecules A 75 <=40
D 35 17-19
L 15 7-8
Scavenging A 160-300 80-150
D 80-150 40-75
L 40-65 20-33
Polyamide Lanterns
Small molecules A - -
D 18 9
L - -
Peptides A - -
D 8 4
L - -
Amino acid initiated A - -
D 5 2.5
L 1 0.5

* Expected quantities are approximations based on a compound of 500MW and a yield of close to 100%.


Minimal batch-to-batch variation in loading is achieved by rigorous adherence to procedures, careful monitoring of the grafting radiation source and consistency of monomer reagents. These factors help prevent any major aberrations in batch loading and ensure standard deviations of less than 3%. For example, the standard deviation in loading for consecutive production runs of PS D-series Lanterns is 1 umol, as indicated in the figure below.

Batch to batch variation in surface loading of SynPhase Lanterns

Batch-to-batch loading variation in consecutive batches of SynPhase D-Series aminomethylated Lanterns.
Caption: The average loading of the 47 batches was 35.8μmol with a standard deviation of 1.0μmol. Loadings for each batch were determined by quantitative Fmoc analyses on 10 SynPhase PS D-Series aminomethylated Lanterns, coupled with Fmoc-B-Alanine (120mM Fmoc- -Alanine, DIC/HOBt activation).

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